When cancer cells form into benign or malignant tumors in the tissues of the anus, anal cancer has occurred. The anus is the opening at the bottom of your intestines where stool exits the body. Anal cancer is rare, but when it occurs, it may spread to other parts of the body.
Anal cancer accounts for an estimated cases and about deaths in the US annually 1. The main symptom is bleeding with defecation. Diagnosis is by endoscopy.
Anal cancer is a rare tumor with an incidence that has been rising over the last 25 years. The disease was once thought to develop as a result of chronic irritation, but it is now known that this is not the case. Multiple risk factors, including human papillomavirus HPV infection, anoreceptive intercourse, cigarette smoking, and immunosuppression, have been identified.
Find information and resources for current and returning patients. Learn about clinical trials at MD Anderson and search our database for open studies. The Lyda Hill Cancer Prevention Center provides cancer risk assessment, screening and diagnostic services.
Most anal cancers start in the squamous cells. Find out about squamous cell cancers and other types. Squamous cell cancers are the most common type of anal cancer.
The anus is an organ that lies at the end of the digestive tract below the rectum. It consists of two sections: the anal canal and the anus or anal verge. The anal canal is a cm long structure that lies between the anal sphincter one of the muscles that controls bowel movements just below the rectum and the anal verge which represents the transition point between the digestive tract and the skin on the outside of the body.
Muscles anal sphincters that surround the anal canal relax to allow waste to leave your body. Anal cancer is an uncommon type of cancer that occurs in the anal canal. The anal canal is a short tube at the end of your rectum through which stool leaves your body.
Anal cancer is an abnormal growth of cells in or around the anus or anal canal, the short passage through which bowel movements pass. The most common type of cancer found in this location is believed to be related to a type of viral infection linked to causing other types of cancers as well. Anal cancers are usually treated with radiation and chemotherapy, but surgery alone may be useful for very small or early anal cancers or when other therapy is not an option or unsuccessful in treating the anal cancer.