16th century italy spanish domination

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Italy—Spain relations refers to interstate relations between Italy and Spain. Both countries established diplomatic relations after the unification of Italy. Relations between Italy and Spain have remained strong and affable for centuries owing to various political, cultural, and historical connections between the two nations.

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The Reconquista is a period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula dominated by almost constant warfare between Muslims and Christians and followed by the Spanish Inquisition. Historians traditionally mark the beginning of the Reconquista with the Battle of Covadonga most likely inand its end is associated with Portuguese and Spanish colonization of the Americas. In an Islamic Berber raiding party, led by Tariq ibn Ziyad, was sent to Iberia to intervene in a civil war in the Visigothic Kingdom.

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The emperors concentrated on German affairs while the popes met increasing resistance -especially from the French- as they tried to assert their authority in Europe. For much of the 14th century the papacy was situated outside Italy, at Avignon, in southern France. Simultaneous with the weakening of papal and imperial authority great intellectual changes took place in Italy.

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Spain thus established complete hegemony over all the Italian states except Venicewhich alone maintained its independence. Several Italian states were ruled directly, while others remained Spanish dependents. Naples, Sicilyand Sardinia which had all been dependencies of Aragonas well as Milancame under direct Spanish rule and owed their allegiance to the sovereign according to their own laws and traditions. Their foreign policy interests were subordinated to the imperial designs of Spain, which also appointed their chief officers viceroys in Naples, Palermoand Cagliari; a governor in Milan and administered their internal affairs through local councils.

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The Etruscans built cities on a grid pattern. The Etruscans were also engineers who drained marshes and built roads. They were also skilled artists.

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The kingdom of Spain, as the country we commonly refer to simply as Spain is officially called, covers almost the entire surface of the Iberian peninsula in the southwest of Europe. Spain is a sovereign state and as of is a member of the European Union. Hispania, as Spain was initially named, was inhabited mostly by Iberian, Basques and Celts.

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We often think of globalization as a modern phenomenon, but the confluence of cultures we see today was already growing in the Spanish Empire during the 15th and 16th centuries. Chocolate and tomatoes from South America made their way to Spain, where they enlivened the cooking of royal chefs. Spain, with its territory reaching from Europe to the Philippines, soon amassed a huge amount of wealth, and consequently became not only a center for art patronage the commissioning of artworksbut also a place where imported materials, goods and ideas fostered new approaches to art.

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From the late 15th century to the early 19th, Spain controlled a huge overseas territory in the New Worldthe Asian archipelago of the Philippineswhat they called "The Indies" Spanish : Las Indias and territories in EuropeAfrica and Oceania. Castile became the dominant kingdom in Iberia because of its jurisdiction over the overseas empire in the Americas and the Philippines. Although the power of the Spanish sovereign as monarch varied from one territory to another, the monarch acted as such in a unitary manner [16] over all the ruler's territories through a system of councils : the unity did not mean uniformity.

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The Holy Roman Empire was ruled by the Austrian Habsburgs and therefore much of Italy was, directly or indirectly, under Habsburg influence. The Papal States and the Republic of Venice remained, legally and practically, independent. Piedmont returned to the Savoy from France due the role played by the duke Emmanuel Philibert in the battle of St Quentin during the Italian War of —

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